Source via: Wikipedia
Who is Punjabi People???
firstly, Punjabi people (Punjabi: پنجابی (Shahmukhi), ਪੰਜਾਬੀ (Gurmukhi), पंजाबी (Devnagri), also spelled Panjabi people; are an ethnic group, originating from the Punjab region, found between Pakistan and India. Punjab literally means the land of five-rivers (Persian:پنج آب panj (“five”) āb (“waters”)), and is a xenonym/exonym that was introduced during the reign of the Mughal empire in the Indian subcontinent. Punjab is often referred to as the breadbasket in both Pakistan and India.
The name Punjab was formally introduced by the Mughals in the 17th century CE. But the coalescence of the various tribes, castes and other communities inhabiting the Punjab into a broader, common “Punjabi” identity occurred only from the 19th century CE, particularly after the annexation of the region by the British. Prior to the British annexation of the Punjab and their final drawing/fixing of its administrative boundaries, the sense and perception of a common “Punjabi” ethno-cultural identity and community did not exist, though the majority of the various communities of the Punjab had long shared linguistic, cultural and racial commonalities.
Traditionally, Punjabi identity was primarily linguistic, regardless of religious affiliation or heritage, referring to those for whom the Punjabi language(s), was the first language and who resided in the Punjab region. As such, they more or less shared the same cultural background. However, in recent times, the definition has been broadened to include people of Punjabi origin, even if they no longer speak the Punjabi language(s).
The Punjabi people are a heterogeneous group and can be subdivided into a number of clans in both the East and West Punjab called biradari (literally meaning “brotherhood”), each traditionally more bound to their own clans then others.
Top 10 famous Punjabi’s
- Maharaja Ranjit Singh (13 November 1780 – 27 June 1839) was the founder of the Sikh Empire, which came to power in the Indian subcontinent in the early half of the 19th century.The empire, based in the Punjab region, existed from 1799 to 1849. It was forged, on the foundations of the Khalsa, under the leadership of Maharaja Ranjit Singh from a collection of autonomous Sikh Misls. Ranjt Singh was succeeded by his son, Kharak Singh.
- Bhagat Singh (IPA: [pə̀ɡət̪ sɪ́ŋɡ] ( listen); 28 September 1907 – 23 March 1931)
was an Indian socialist considered
to be one of the most influential revolutionaries of the Indian
independence movement. He is often referred to as “Shaheed Bhagat Singh”,
the word “Shaheed” meaning “martyr” in a number of Indian languages.
Born into a Sikh family which had earlier been involved in revolutionary
activities against the British Raj, as a teenager Singh studied European
revolutionary movements and was attracted to anarchist and Marxist ideologies.
He became involved in numerous revolutionary organisations,
and quickly rose through the ranks of the Hindustan Republican Association (HRA) to
become one of its main leaders, eventually
changing its name to the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association (HSRA) in 1928.
- Bulleh Shah, sometimes Bulla(h) Shah (1680–1757)
(Punjabi: بلہے شاہ, ਬੁੱਲ੍ਹੇ ਸ਼ਾਹ) was a Punjabi Sufi poet, humanist and philosopher.
His full name was Abdullah Shah
A large amount of what is believed to be known about Bulleh Shah comes through legends, and is subjective; to the point that there isn’t even agreement among historians concerning his precise date and place of birth. Some information about his life has been pieced together from his own writings. Other “facts” seem to have been passed down through oral traditions.Bulleh Shah is believed to have been born in 1680 in the small village of Uch, Punjab, in present-day Pakistan. His father, Shah Muhammad Darwaish, was a teacher and preacher in a village mosque. Little is known about Bulleh Shah’s ancestry except that his family claimed direct descent from the Islamic Prophet Muhammad.When he was six months old, his parents relocated to Malakwal. His father later got a job in Pandoke, about 50 miles south-east of Kasur. Bulleh Shah received his early schooling in Pandoke and moved to Kasur for higher education. He also received education from Maulana Mohiyuddin. His spiritual teacher was the Qadiri Sufi Shah Inayat Qadiri, who was a member of the Arain tribe of Lahore.Bulleh Shah’s time was marked with communal strife between Muslims and Sikhs. But in that age Baba Bulleh Shah was a beacon of hope and peace for the citizens of Punjab. While Bulleh Shah was in Pandoke, Muslims killed a young Sikh man who was riding through their village in retaliation for murder of some Muslims by Sikhs. Baba Bulleh Shah denounced the murder of an innocent Sikh and was censured by the mullas and muftis of Pandoke. Bulleh Shah maintained that violence was not the answer to violence. Bulleh Shah also hailed the ninth Sikh Guru, Guru Tegh Bahadur as a Ghazi, or “religious warrior”, which caused controversy among Muslims of that time.Bulleh Shah died in 1757 in Kasur. Tradition has it that Islamic scholars of the time forbade local imams to carry out Bulleh Shah’s funeral, considering him an infidel. However, after he was buried outside of the city, his tomb started attracting thousands of pilgrims from the region, and soon the center of Kasur moved to that place. Today, a large festival (urs) is celebrated at the tomb every year.
- Bhai Vir Singh Sahitya Sadan, a premier literary and cultural organization in Delhi was established in 1958 in the memory of the father of modern Punjabi literature and Saint-Poet of India Bhai Vir Singh. While the foundation stone of the building was laid in March, 1972 by President V. V. Giri, the memorial was inaugurated by President N. Sanjeeva Reddy, in 1978.Since its inception, the Sadan has been making serious efforts in promoting the message of Guru Granth Sahib through the annotation of Gurbani and its translation into various regional and foreign languages.In connection with the quadricentenary celebration of the installation of Guru Granth Sahib in the Harimandir Sahib, Amritsar, in 2004, the National Institute of Panjab Studies, a sister institution of the Sadan, took up a major project of Locating, Cataloguing and Digitizing rare Guru Granth Sahib Birs. With Akal Purakh’s grace, we have succeeded in digitizing some of the precious Guru Granth Sahib manuscripts from different repositories in India and abroad.To mark the tercentenary of Gurgaddi Divas of Guru Granth Sahib, in 2008, Guru Granth Sahib Resource Centre was set up in the Sadan with a major grant from the Department of Culture, Government of India. The Resource Centre aims to build a first-rate Digital Library on Sikhism in addition to digitizing and conserving rare Guru Granth Sahib Birs with due maryada.The management of the Sadan is headed by prominent litterateurs and statesmen and others interested in promoting the rich heritage of the Sikh Panth with Dr. Manmohan Singh as its President, Dr. J.S. Neki, as Hony. General Secretary and Dr. Mohinder Singh as its Director. Bhai Vir Singh (1872-1957) was the persona behind the Sikh renaissance in the late nineteenth century, taking inspiration from the Guru Granth Sahib, when the community was at the crossroads. The management of Bhai Vir Singh Sahitya Sadan took up this initiative of establishing a centre on the source which inspired all, for humanity at large and Sikhs in particular.viasource;
- Fauja Singh (Punjabi: ਫੌਜਾ ਸਿੰਘ) is a British centenarian marathon runner of Punjabi Sikh descent. He is a world record holder in his age bracket. His current personal best time for the London Marathon (2003) is 6 hours 2 minutes, and his marathon record, for age 90-plus, is 5 hours 40 minutes at the age of 92, at the 2003 Toronto Waterfront Marathon.In 2004, Singh was featured in an advertising campaign for sportswear manufacturer Adidas alongside David Beckham and Muhammad Ali.Singh holds UK records for the 200 m, 400 m, 800 m, mile and 3000 m for his age group, records all set within a single 94 minute period. At the age of 100 (and a half), Singh attempted and accomplished eight world age group records in one day, at the special Ontario Masters Association Fauja Singh Invitational Meet, held at Birchmount Stadium in Toronto, Ontario Canada. Timed by officials in Canada. He ran the 100 metres in 23.14, 200 metres in 52.23, the 400 metres in 2:13.48, the 800 metres in 5:32.18, the 1500 metres in 11:27.81, the mile in 11:53.45, the 3000 metres in 24:52.47 and the 5000 metres in 49:57.39, setting five world records for his age group in one day. Each time bested the previous record in that age division (some events had no previous record holder, as nobody over age 100 had ever attempted the distance). Some of his marks are significantly superior to the listed world record in the M95 age group as well.Three days later, on 16 October 2011, Singh became the first 100-year-old to finish a marathon, completing the Toronto Waterfront Marathon in 8:11:06. As it took him over 14 minutes after the gun to cross the starting line, the official time submitted for the age group record will be 8:25:17. However, Guinness World Records refused to include Singh in its record book due to the fact that he could not produce his birth certificate to prove his age. Birth records were not kept in India in 1911, however it is claimed that records written in Urdu date back to 23 February 1879. He was able to produce a passport listing his date of birth as 1 April 1911, and a letter from Queen Elizabeth II congratulating him on his 100th birthdayIn October 2011, Singh, a vegetarian, became the oldest man to be featured in a PETA campaign.In July 2012, Fauja Singh carried the Olympic torch.Singh had stated that he would retire from competitive running after taking part in the Hong Kong marathon on 24 February 2013 (just 5 weeks shy of his 102nd birthday).
- Khushwant Singh (born 2 February 1915) is an Indian novelist and journalist.An Indo-Anglian novelist, Singh is best known for his trenchant secularism,
his humor, and an abiding love of poetry.
His comparisons of social and behavioral characteristics of
Westerners and Indians are laced with acid wit.
He served as editor of several literary and news magazines, as well as two broadsheet newspapers, through the 1970s and 1980s. He is a
recipient of the Padma Vibhushan, the second-highest civilian award in India.
Singh was born in Hadali District Khushab, Punjab (which now lies in Pakistan), in a Sikh family.
His father, Sir Sobha Singh (builder),
was a prominent builder in Lutyens’ Delhi. His uncle Sardar Ujjal Singh (1895–1983)
was Ex. Governor of Punjab & Tamil Nadu.He was educated at Modern School, New Delhi, Government College, Lahore,
St. Stephen’s College in Delhi and King’s College, London, before reading for the Bar at the Inner Temple.